Sunday, October 27, 2013


Hello! Though we're updating on an unusual day, this will act as our Monthly Micronation Monday. Today we look at Ladonia, an internet-based micronation in Sweden.

In a nature preserve in southwest Sweden stands a nature reserve marked by two landmarks- a nine-foot tall tower named Nimis and a concrete sculpture called Arx.


Lars Vilks began the art project of creating Nimis in 1980. However, in 1982, the government noticed and foretold the necessary destruction of the tower. At first, to avoid government intervention, Vilks sold the work to Cristo, an artist. The deed of sale was on a piece of driftwood. Then, in 1996, Vilks declared the area an indpendent nation, henceforth called Ladonia. The strategy seemingly worked- the government did not tear down these artworks.
In 1999, Vilks built another sculpture named Omphalos, which was ordered destroyed by a court decision. Ernst Billgren bought Omphalos, and urged the sculpture simply be removed from the site without damage. The authorities did remove the sculpture, but harmed it in the process.

Vilks sought permission to build a monument in Omphalos' place and his request was granted- provided the monument be under 8 cm tall. Vilks accepted and completed the challenge.

Lars Vilks 20050722.jpg

Nowadays, Ladonia is 'engaged in war' with the satirical website of "The Armed Coalition Forces of the Internets," who demand no copyright laws and free internet access for all of Ladonia's citizens. Ladonia has no inhabitants, though it claims 15,000 citizens through online application. The website has confused people on this matter in the past, however, as roughly 3000 Pakistanis applied online for citizenship to Ladonia, were granted it, and then were unable to move there.

The micronation is a constitutional monarchy, and citizenship is free online. Lordship or ladyship costs only $30. Citizens contribute to the forming of a Ladonian language through suggesting a word in their citizenship application. 

Sources: Wikipedia,, Atlas

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Hungary during WWII

Hungary during World War II was one of the nations to fight on the side of the Axis and Allied powers. Hungary relied on trade with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in the years leading up to the war. Hungary was pressured into the Axis Powers but also sought negotiations with the Allied Powers, a 'betrayal' that led to Hitler's occupation of the country. World War II was a low point for the nation, with both Germany and the USSR poised to lay waste to the less powerful nation.

From the start of the war, Hitler sought Hungary's support in the invasion of Yugoslavia. He promised the return of Hungarian territory in exchange for military support from the Hungarians. Prime Minister Teleki, finding no way to keep Hungary from becoming Germany's ally, committed suicide on April 3, 1941. Right-wing radical László Bárdossy replaced him. Bardossy sought to both assist Germany and keep Hungary independent from the nation that was quickly enveloping Europe. Under Hungarian Admiral Horthy, Hungary entered into war against the Soviet Union alongside Germany.

Over a hundred thousand Hungarians would die during the conflict against the USSR, and Germany would have them pulled from the front lines once Hungary no longer had an effective military.

Admiral Horthy would replace Bardossy with Miklos Kallay, a conservative who wished to free Hungary from Germany's oppression. In order to avoid occupation, Kallay quietly conducted negotiations with the UK and the US stating they would not fire on their aircrafts in exchange for no Allied bombardment on their cities. 

The Germans, aware of these negotiations, occupied Hungary. Kallay was replaced by Dome Sztójay, a pro-Socialist leader. Hungary was ruled completely by force, with no more pretense of Hungarian sovereignty.

In September 1944 came a battle of conflicting interest between the USSR and Germany, with Hungary as the battlefield. The USSR invaded the country. Horthy told the nation he had signed an armistice with the Soviets, yet the Hungarian army continued to desperately fight them off. Germans kidnapped Horthy's son and forced him to abort the armistice with the Soviets. With Romanian help, the Russians encircled Budapest and forced a German and Hungarian surrender by February 1945. However, on December 31, 1944, during this battle, Hungary officially declared war on Germany.

As if to further confuse Hungary's alignment, Hungarian garrisons in Bavaria stood in parade formation to surrender to the passing American troops, yet other pro-German Hungarian units continued to fight for the Axis Powers. While often portrayed as just a pawn of either Germany or the USSR, Hungary was a very divided nation during World War II, where the only real issue agreed upon by the nation was Hungarian independence. Neither German occupation during the war nor Soviet occupation after the war allowed this to happen.

Sources: Wikipedia, Country,, Project MUSE